Monday, 22 November 2021

Plastics Industry: Using the Laws of the Fifth Discipline as Management Success Enabler (Leadership Series)

Over the past years I found that the fifth discipline – systems thinking approach useful in my different roles in the plastics industry. In this post, I bring the fifth discipline closer to you and the one or other element may be interesting for your daily operations as well.

What is the fifth discipline?

Coined by Peter Senge, the fifth discipline (=system thinking) focuses on group problem solving by using the systems thinking method in order to convert companies into learning organizations.

What are the other four disciplines?

A shared Vision, Mental Models, Team Learning, and Personal Mastery.

What are the Laws of the Fifth Discipline?

Let us start with an overview and then I will provide you my take on each of the laws: 

Plastics Industry: Using the Laws of the Fifth Discipline as Management Success Enabler 

1.    Today's problems come from yesterday's "solutions."

Solving problems is daily business for polymer engineers and business leaders, however intended and unintended consequences are sometimes too less considered. The solution may strike back and in turn create new problems (for instance, the new selected injection point fills the part however may result in weld lines).

2.    The harder you push, the harder the system pushes back.

Most discussions are built on disagreeing with the argument of the other involved opponent. However, with this we strengthen the opponent's positions since he tries to fight harder to bring his argument through. In general, systems need to find their solution on their own and not be pushed into one. Problems cannot be solved in this way and listening to the opponent to better solve a problem can be the key.

3.    Behavior grows better before it grows worse.

In essence, we succeed in the short term but will struggle in the long term. Plastics price increases in the short run can bring more revenue, however if you want to develop sustainable business with your customer such a short initiative may be a roadblock in the long run.

4.    The easy way out usually leads back in.

An example of law number four is the quality certificates of plastic compounds. Over time, certain plastic compounds tend to enlarge their product specification such as tensile strength and elongation at break. This allows the manufacturer to use more production campaigns compared to products with tight tolerances. However, the broadening of specification will not stay uncovered by customers and even more stringent quality specifications will be demanded as a consequence.

5.    The cure can be worse than the disease.

In case a change of material of a plastic part is needed, we have to ensure that the new chosen material (“cure”) does not impact the entire system (processing, purchasing, etc.) causing even more problems.

6.    Faster is slower.

This law relates for example to the approach of bringing in an external consultant or new manager to fix certain things. Such a quick fix results often in a slow healing process. It takes up some time to find sustainable solutions in big corporations.

7.    Cause and effect are not closely related in time and space.

We learned not to touch an open flame since it will burn us. There is a clear and visible relationship between cause and effect. However, in business situations, this is not always the case. Especially, for chemical investment decisions, current situations are mistaken with future demands. For instance, current demand for a certain polymer is high and new production capacities need to be added. Investment plans were made and the decision to invest in a new polymer production plant was signed off. However, the plant will be on stream only in three years and by then the demand situation may have changed completely. This is also an example of the so-called pig cycle.

8.     Small changes can produce big results—but the areas of highest leverage are often the least obvious.

This law reminds me of one of the quotes of Carl Gustav Jung, the Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology: “That which you most need, will be found where you least want to look”. If you find the right place in a system, then small and focused actions can have a much bigger leaver which in turn produce bigger changes.  Often, this is referred to as the law of leverage.

9.    You can have your cake and eat it too—but not at once.

Here the key approach is to move away from an either/or problem solution towards a both/and solution. This in turn needs more engagement and creativity of involved stakeholders.

10. Dividing an elephant in half does not produce two small elephants.

The plastics industry is one giant elephant and what works well for a compounder might not work so well for a material manufacturer. It is important to keep different view angles and not fall into Maslow’s hammer “if all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail".

11. There is no blame.

Over the past years, accelerated by globalization and digitalization, we are faced with complex problem solving. Overseeing the responsibility for such complex systems is difficult for the individual manager. Therefore, inviting relevant parts of the company to support with problem solving is a way forward and will not create the headwinds, often so frightening by management.

Thanks for reading and #findoutaboutplastics

Greetings

Herwig Juster

Interested to talk with me about your plastic selection and part design needs - here you can contact me 

Interested in my monthly blog posts – then subscribe here and receive my high performance polymers knowledge matrix.
New to my Find Out About Plastics Blog – check out the start here section
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Polymer Material Selection (PoMS) for Electric Vehicles (xEVs) - check out my new online course

Literature:

[1] Peter Senge - The Fifth Discipline

[2] https://www.peterkang.com/reflecting-on-the-11-laws-of-the-fifth-discipline-from-peter-senges-the-fifth-discipline/

[3] https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/peter-senges-11-laws-systems-thinking-ivan-luizio-magalh%C3%A3es/


Saturday, 20 November 2021

My Quote Selection of Chemical and Polymer Business Leaders

 

Sir John Harvey-Jones

Peter Atkins

Dhirubhai Ambani


Thanks for reading and #findoutaboutplastics

Greetings

Herwig Juster

Interested to talk with me about your plastic selection and part design needs - here you can contact me 

Interested in my monthly blog posts – then subscribe here and receive my high performance polymers knowledge matrix.
New to my Find Out About Plastics Blog – check out the start here section
You can support me here on  PayPalMe
Polymer Material Selection (PoMS) for Electric Vehicles (xEVs) - check out my new online course

Sunday, 14 November 2021

Rule of Thumb Polymer Material Selection – Glass Fiber Sizing

Hello and welcome to a new rule of thumb post. More rule of thumb posts can be found here.

Glass fiber reinforced compounds which are used in a glycol environment (for instance thermal management systems) need to use a special glass fiber sizing. 

But why? 

In general, glass fibers come with a sizing attached. The sizing increases the interfacial adhesion of the base polymer to the glass fiber. The strength of the material is influenced by this adhesion of the polymer to the glass fiber surface. Standard glass fiber sizing is cleaved when exposed to glycol. The cleavage results in a decrease of the adhesion between glass fiber and polymer and as a consequence mechanical properties will drop. 

Therefore, glass fibers with special sizing need to be used when parts are exposed to water glycol since they resist this type of cleavage. As a rule of thumb, glycol resistant glass fiber sizing in compounds must be used in any application that is exposed to coolants in order to keep the desired mechanical property level over time. 

Rule of Thumb - Selection of optimal glass fiber sizing for glycol application environments


Thanks for reading and #findoutaboutplastics

Greetings

Herwig Juster

Interested to talk with me about your plastic selection and part design needs - here you can contact me 

Interested in my monthly blog posts – then subscribe here and receive my high performance polymers knowledge matrix.
New to my Find Out About Plastics Blog – check out the start here section
You can support me here on  PayPalMe
Polymer Material Selection (PoMS) for Electric Vehicles (xEVs) - check out my new online course

Literature: 

[1] https://www.michelman.com/markets/reinforced-plastic-composites/fiber-sizing/

[2] https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359835X19303689

[3] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256849998_Sizing_stability_is_a_key_element_for_glass_fibre_manufacturing


Wednesday, 3 November 2021

The Plastics Performance Iceberg -Proper Material Data Assessment

Hello and welcome to a new post. Today we discuss the so called Plastics Performance Iceberg. 

As shown in Figure 1 below, at the top of the Iceberg we have the standardized ASTM and ISO test data of polymers. They are very useful for having a first look at possible plastics and first screening during your material selection process.  It allows a quick comparison of different polymers to each other. However such data just represent the tip of the material data iceberg. Below the water line there are several more invisible data which need to be considered. Therefore it is important to capture information such as chemical exposure in the requirement list of your part. 

Figure 1: The Plastics Performance Iceberg - ASTM/ISO vs. Real World Data

I made a training video on this topic too, where we discuss material data, especially ASTM/ISO data vs. the real world. We have a look at the obstacles and how to remove them. 


Thanks for reading!

Greetings and #findoutaboutplastics

Herwig Juster

Interested to talk with me about your plastic selection and part design needs - here you can contact me 

Interested in my monthly blog posts – then subscribe here and receive my high performance polymers knowledge matrix.
New to my Find Out About Plastics Blog – check out the start here section
You can support me here on  PayPalMe
Polymer Material Selection (PoMS) for Electric Vehicles (xEVs) - check out my new online course

Wednesday, 27 October 2021

Rule of Thumb for Plastics Part Design – Ribs

 Hello and welcome to a new rule of thumb post. More rule of thumb posts can be found here.

In this post we discuss an important element in plastic part design: ribs. The design of proper ribs for increasing the stiffness of your part is one element of the 10 “holy” Design rules for injection moulded products.

Why are ribs so effective?

Ribs are just getting effective when they are 4-10 times higher than the wall thickness. The thickness of the rib should be 40% (minimize sink marks) - 60% (maximize strength) of the original wall. Furthermore, injection moulding location and filling direction (molecular orientation) affects how ribs will perform in a later stage. In general, it can be stated that if your ribs never exceed 40-60% of the nominal wall thickness and length of 4-10 times of nominal wall thickness, problems of sink are decreased and part stiffness is increased.

Rule of Thumb for Plastic Part Design: how to design ribs

When to consider ribs?

There are two main design routes for increasing the stiffness of your part: make a thick wall section or use ribs. The cross sectional moment of inertia I = b*h^3/ 12 shows that increasing the wall thickness will increase the stiffness of your part to the power of three. It is more effective than changing the material. However, cooling time will increase significantly too. Therefore, adding the rib may be the better solution. Adding a rib to a wall thickness of 8 mm will increase the part’s stiffness six times, compared to a wall thickness of 12 mm with no rib.  

Thanks for reading!

Greetings and #findoutaboutplastics

Herwig Juster

nterested to talk with me about your plastic selection and part design needs - here you can contact me 

Interested in my monthly blog posts – then subscribe here and receive my high performance polymers knowledge matrix.
New to my Find Out About Plastics Blog – check out the start here section
You can support me here on  PayPalMe
Polymer Material Selection (PoMS) for Electric Vehicles (xEVs) - check out my new online course


Literature:

[1] Keuerleber and Eyerer: Konstruieren und Gestalten mit Kuntstoffen, 2007

[2] https://www.findoutaboutplastics.com/2018/04/plastics-part-design-10-holy-design.html

[3] Designing with Plastics: A Practical Guide for Engineers, DESIGN NEWS 11.20.06

Monday, 25 October 2021

Plastics Identification - 3 Simple Methods

Hello and welcome to a new blog post where I summarized in an infographic three simple methods which can be used for plastics identification: 

Plastics Identification - 3 Simple Methods

Furthermore, I made training videos with more details on the different methods: 

Part 1: 3 simple methods


Part 2: identify polyolefins, polyamides, polycarbonates and high heat plastics


Part 3: identify plastic compounds with IR-spectroscopy


Thanks for reading!

Greetings and #findoutaboutplastics

Herwig Juster

#plasticsidentification #findoutaboutplastics 

Interested to talk with me about your plastic selection and part design needs - here you can contact me 

Interested in my monthly blog posts – then subscribe here and receive my high performance polymers knowledge matrix.
New to my Find Out About Plastics Blog – check out the start here section
You can support me here on  PayPalMe
Polymer Material Selection (PoMS) for Electric Vehicles (xEVs) - check out my new online course


Thursday, 21 October 2021

Guest Interview: Paolo Negri – Founder and Owner of Isotattica “Stop turning the knobs and apply hands-on rheology to troubleshoot and design your materials and equipment!”

Hello and welcome to this guest interview. Today I present to you Mr. Paolo Negri founder and owner of Isotattica. We have the chance to learn about analysis on polymer flow behaviour with innovative methods.

Enjoy the interview!


Tell us about yourself, your current role, and about Isotattica.

Thank you for having me on your blog. I am Paolo Negri founder and owner of Isotattica.

I have always worked in the fantastic world of polymers and I am driven by the passion of offering innovative service with multidisciplinary approach.

My Vision is to become a valuable reference for industrial rheology with innovative methods to be used with concrete problem-solving purpose.

With over 25 + years of transversal activities in the field of polymers, extrusion, rheometry, we provide technical support to solve problems that arise during processing phase of the materials, with strong focus on rheology as methodology and “tool” to elucidate and optimize processes and equipment.

What is the rheological investigation method and device you developed and what is the practical usage of it?

Rheology is concerned with measuring the stress in a material and relating it to its deformation in the molten flow of the material.

Rheology is still little known in the industrial field because it is considered complex, of impractical implementation and does not bring practical results, vice versa I want to propose a different way of utilization of it: if findings are expressed in an understandable reading and applied in a pragmatic and concrete way to industrial processes, rheology becomes a valid approach to understand and resolve critical issues.

Understanding the flow properties of polymers through tests directly on extrusion-connected equipment can help optimize products and process conditions, thus saving costs and minimizing potential waste.

My motto is: Stop turning the knobs and apply hands-on rheology to troubleshoot and design your materials and equipment!

Isotattica offers analysis on flow behaviour with innovative methods: flow visualization and rheometric measurement through flow-induce birefringence and elongational experiments made with a filament stretching apparatus.

The first approach is innovative (the optical cell is patent pending) and allows flow visualization and mapping of stresses and deformation inside the geometry of flow channels. Thanks to the so called “optical rule” is it possible to sequence and calculate stresses and finally to determine viscosity in the melt stream where elongational specifically takes place.

The second approach, filament-stretching-method, is mainly used as complementary test and allows assessment of the melt quality in extensional experiments.

I invite readers to learn more on my website www.isotattica.com.

What are some potential applications?

The proposed methods of analysis are very sensitive: it is possible to replicate industrial process condition and capture the details that explain the difference in extrudability, for example due to the smallest of batch fluctuation;

In addition, it is possible to understand the contribution of elongational deformation in “complex flow” and correlate structure-property-processing-performance.

Die designers benefit from this because they can finally size the channels paths and tooling’s based on the specific and well understood flow responses of the materials and not based on generic data.

Where can the readers find out more about you and the services of Isotattica?

Whatever you would like to know about Isotattica including practical examples of utilization of these analysis, you can visit our website www.isotattica.com or simply mail or call me asking to provide specific details and offers.

With the pandemic continuing, we are more enhancing on in-direct communication via video conferences.

Who do you turn to?

We provide concrete and pragmatic support:

- To those who need to design new materials / compounds and perform rheometric characterizations for mapping and quantifying flow response, with emphasis in the extensional field in the various channel’s geometries or in downstream operation like blowing, cast film, profile extrusions, strand palettization, injection molding and many others

- To those who need to design and manufacture process equipment and layouts (co-extrusion heads / dies, extruders, downstream equipment) for specific industrial applications where knowledge of the shear characteristics but above all in elongation are vital.

- Who must study the extrusion process and its efficiency based on the rheological response of the materials and their stability when changing extrusion settings.

- To producers and converter of materials, or to deepen the intimate rheological aspects that cannot be captured with conventional approaches and that can make the difference.

- To those who need material consultation, for proper material selection, design review, feasibility study.

- To those who want to acquire mastery in dealing with and solving problems and improve business by distinguishing themselves from competitors.

That was the guest interview with Paolo Negri from Isotattica – thank you Paolo for the interesting insights into the polymer rheology world!

Thanks for reading!

Greetings and #findoutaboutplastics

Herwig Juster

#rheology #guestinterview #Isotattica

Interested to talk with me about your plastic selection and part design needs - here you can contact me 

Interested in my monthly blog posts – then subscribe here and receive my high performance polymers knowledge matrix.
New to my Find Out About Plastics Blog – check out the start here section
You can support me here on  PayPalMe
Polymer Material Selection (PoMS) for Electric Vehicles (xEVs) - check out my new online course