Thursday, 31 May 2018

10 Fluoropolymer Facts for Designers & Engineers






Fluoropolymers are used nowadays in several industries and applications like flexible tubing, packaging, cooking equipment, wear and friction parts.
In the table below you can find an overview of the thermoplastic fluoropolymer family.

What is their secret and why are they used in high-end applications?
In this blog post I made a fact list which will answer those questions:
  1. Fluoropolymers contain a carbon-fluorine bond which is very polar with a very high bond strength leading to very low intermolecular attractions.
  2. Based on this, fluoropolymers have very low surface energy, a low coefficient of friction and are lipid, water and stain repellant.
  3. Fluoropolymers have both: low and high temperature resistance; furthermore they have excellent dielectric properties and are chemically inert.
  4. When blended with other polymers, fluoropolymers will bloom to the surface due to the very low surface free energy (lubricous behavior).
  5. Latest market studies implicate that the global fluoropolymer market will be worth over $8.8 billion by 2019 and thought to be between 80,000 and 90,000 tons.
  6. Roy J. Plunkett accidently discovered one of the most famous fluoropolymers (Teflon by DuPont) in 1938.
  7. PTFE, PVDF, FEP and ETFE are the most common used fluoropolymers.
  8. Among the fluoropolymers, PTFE has with 0.1 the lowest coefficient of friction.
  9. Most fluoropolymers are fully fluorinated olefinic (aliphatic based) materials and homopolymers contain over 99% fluorine by weight which makes them most resistant to chemicals.
  10. Fluoropolymers are melt processable except of PTFE and PVF.
Here some more honorable mentions:
  1. For the semiconductor industry fluoropolymers are vital. Without them, you would not read this blog post on your computer, tablet or smartphone.
  2. ETFE can be used as a glass replacement: The Allianz Arena in Germany uses ETFE panels.
  3. Coatings out of PTFE are used in high temperature applications up to 290°C e.g. for coating of bakery equipment.
  4. The world’s largest manufacturers of fluoropolymers include DuPont, Daikin, Solvay, Dyneon, and Asahi Glass.
I hope you enjoyed this fact list.

Thanks for reading and till next time!
Greetings,
Herwig Juster


New to my Findoutaboutplastics Blog – check out the starthere section.

Literature:

[2] https://www.solvay.com/en/markets-and-products/featured-products/fluoropolymers-faq.html






Wednesday, 16 May 2018

Polymer densities: "You know your're a plastics engineer if..."

...you know the specific density of most polymers without having to look it up."


Still, having a repository of 318 polymers with their specific density at hand can help you in certain material selection decisions.
Enjoy the table and thanks for reading!
Thanks to Scientific Polymer Products for the data.
Greetings, Herwig
P.S. New to my blog - check out the start here section.

  
Chemical Name
Density (g/cc)
Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)
0,83
Poly(1-pentene)
0,85
Ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer-50% ethylene/4% diene
0,86
Ethylene/propylene copolymer-60% ethylene
0,86
Poly(1-butene)
0,86
Poly(1-hexene)
0,86
Poly(1-octadecene)
0,86
Polypropylene, atactic
0,866
Polymethylhexadecylsiloxane
0,88
Polymethyltetradecylsiloxane
0,88
Ethylene/butylene copolymer, dihydroxy terminated
0,88
Ethylene/butylene copolymer, monohydroxyl terminated
0,88
Poly(vinyl n-decyl ether)
0,883
Polymethyloctadecylsiloxane
0,886
Poly(1,4-pentadiene)
0,89
Poly(methyl n-tetradecyl siloxane)
0,89
Poly(methyl n-octadecylsiloxane)
0,89
Poly(vinyl n-dodecyl ether)
0,892
Poly(1,4-butadiene)
0,892
Polypropylene, isotactic
0,9
Polybutadiene, cis
0,9
Polybutadiene, cis & trans-36% trans
0,9
Poly(vinyl 2-ethylhexyl ether)
0,904
Polyisoprene
0,906
Polybutadiene, dicarboxy terminated
0,907
Poly(1,2-butadiene)
0,909
Polymethylhexylsiloxane
0,91
Styrene/ethylene-butylene, ABA block copolymer-29% styrene
0,91
Polydimethylsilane
0,91
Polybutadiene oligomer, acrylated
0,91
Polymethyloctylsiloxane
0,91
Poly(methyl n-octylsiloxane)
0,91
Styrene/butadiene copolymer-5% styrene
0,91
Poly(methyl n-hexylsiloxane)
0,91
Poly(vinyl n-octyl ether)
0,914
Poly(1-butene), isotactic
0,915
Styrene/isoprene, ABA block copolymer-14% styrene
0,92
Polyisobutylene
0,92
Poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene)-2.2% isoprene
0,92
Polyethylene, low density
0,92
Poly(vinyl sec-butyl ether)
0,92
Poly(vinyl isopropyl ether)
0,924
Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile),
dicarboxy terminated-10% acrylonitrile
0,924
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-18% vinyl acetate
0,925
Poly(vinyl n-hexyl ether)
0,925
Poly(vinyl n-butyl ether)
0,927
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-9% vinyl acetate
0,928
Poly(lauryl methacrylate)
0,929
Poly(dodecyl methacrylate)
0,929
Poly(isobutylene-co-isoprene), brominated-1,5% isoprene, 2.1% bromine
0,93
Polyethylene, oxidized
0,93
Ethylene/acrylic acid copolymer-5% acrylic acid
0,93
Ethylene/ethyl acrylate copolymer-18% ethyl acrylate
0,93
Polybutadiene, phenyl terminated
0,93
Poly(vinyl isobutyl ether)
0,93
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-14% vinyl acetate
0,932
Styrene/butadiene copolymer-23% styrene
0,935
Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile), amine terminated-10% acrylonitrile
0,938
Styrene/butadiene, ABA block copolymer
0,94
Polydimethylsiloxane, ethoxy terminated
0,94
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-25% vinyl acetate
0,948
Polyethylene, high density
0,95
Ethylene/methacrylic acid ionomer, sodium ion
0,95
Poly(p-t-butyl styrene)
0,95
Poly(vinyl ethyl ether)
0,95
Poly(vinyl cyclohexane)
0,95
Ethylene/methacrylic acid ionomer, zinc ion
0,95
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-28% vinyl acetate
0,951
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-33% vinyl acetate
0,952
Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile),
dicarboxy terminated-18% acrylonitrile
0,955
N-Vinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymer-30% N-vinyl pyrrolidone
0,955
Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile), amine terminated-16.5%
acrylonitrile
0,956
Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile), dicarboxy terminated-21.5%
acrylonitrile
0,958
Polyisoprene, trans
0,96
Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile), dicarboxy terminated-26%
acrylonitrile
0,96
Poly(methyl vinyl ether/maleic acid), monobutyl ester
0,962
Styrene/butadiene copolymer-45% styrene
0,965
Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer-20% maleic
anhydride
0,97
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-22% acrylonitrile
0,97
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-21% acrylonitrile
0,97
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-29% acrylonitrile
0,97
Polydimethylsiloxane
0,97
Poly(n-octyl methacrylate)
0,971
Poly(tetramethylene ether) glycol
0,979
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-40% vinyl acetate
0,98
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-45% vinyl acetate
0,98
Polydimethylsiloxane, dihydroxy terminated
0,98
Polydimethylsiloxane, dimethylamine terminated
0,98
Polydimethylsiloxane, acetoxy terminated
0,98
Poly(propylene oxide), monoamine terminated
0,98
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-33% acrylonitrile
0,98
Poly(vinyl n-butyl sulfide)
0,98
Poly(vinylmethylsiloxane)
0,98
Polyoxytetramethylene
0,98
Poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile),
vinyl terminated-16% acrylonitrile
0,985
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-38% acrylonitrile
0,99
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-27% acrylonitrile
0,99
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-45% acrylonitrile
0,99
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-50% vinyl acetate
0,99
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-31% acrylonitrile
0,99
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-44% acrylonitrile
0,99
Polymethylhydrosiloxane
0,99
Poly(1,2,2-trimethylpropyl methacrylate)
0,991
Poly(neopentyl methacrylate)
0,993
Poly(propylene oxide), diamine terminated
0,9964
Poly(propylene oxide), diurea terminated
0,9989
Poly(vinyl stearate)
1
Polydimethylsiloxane, chlorine terminated
1
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-43% acrylonitrile
1
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-51% acrylonitrile
1
Acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer-41% acrylonitrile
1
Poly(propylene oxide)
1
Poly(t-butyl acrylate)
1
Poly(3,3-dimethylbutyl methacrylate)
1,001
Poly(propylene oxide), triamine terminated
1,003
Poly(propylene glycol)
1,005
Poly(1,3-dimethylbutyl methacrylate)
1,005
Poly(n-hexyl methacrylate)
1,007
Poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-ethylene oxide),
AB block-25% dimethylsiloxane
1,007
Nylon 12 [Poly(lauryllactam)]
1,01
Poly(1-methylpentyl methacrylate)
1,013
Poly(1,4-butylene adipate)
1,019
Poly(vinyl propionate)
1,02
Poly(t-butyl methacrylate)
1,022
Poly(o-methyl styrene)
1,027
Poly(1-methylbutyl methacrylate)
1,03
Poly(isopentyl methacrylate)
1,032
Poly(n,n-dimethyl-3,5-dimethylene piperidinium chloride)
1,033
Poly(isopropyl methacrylate)
1,033
Poly(4-methylstyrene), monocarboxy terminated
1,04
Poly(4-methylstyrene)
1,04
Nylon 11 [Poly(undecanoamide)]
1,04
Poly(2-ethylbutyl methacrylate)
1,04
Poly(vinyl n-pentyl ether)
1,041
Poly(isobutyl methacrylate)
1,045
Poly(dimethysiloxane-co-diphenylsiloxane)-80% dimethylsiloxane
1,05
Polystyrene, monomethacrylate terminated
1,05
Polystyrene, monohydroxy terminated
1,05
Poly(vinyl methyl ether)
1,05
Polystyrene, 90% syndiotactic
1,05
Polystyrene
1,05
Poly(5-phenyl-1-pentene)
1,05
Poly(sec-butyl methacrylate)
1,052
Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)
1,055
Polyethyleneimine, epichlorohydrin modified
1,055
Polydiethoxysiloxane
1,06
Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer-70% vinyl acetate
1,06
Poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide)
1,06
Poly(isobutyl acrylate)
1,06
Poly(isobornyl methacrylate)
1,06
Polyphenylene oxide
1,06
Poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-ethylene oxide),
AB block-18% dimethylsiloxane
1,066
Poly(dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin), quaternized
1,07
Nylon 6/12 [Poly(hexamethylene dodecanediamide)]
1,07
Poly(diethylene triamine-co-adipic acid)
1,07
Polyethyleneimine
1,07
Poly(caprolatone)diol
1,07
Poly(caprolatone)triol
1,073
Poly(alpha-methylstyrene)
1,075
Nylon 6/9 [Poly(hexamethylene nonanediamide)]
1,08
Poly(ethylene oxide), diamine terminated
1,08
Poly(isopropyl acrylate)
1,08
Polyethyleneimine, 80% ethoxylated
1,08
Poly(n-propyl methacrylate)
1,08
Styrene/acrylonitrile copolymer-25% acrylonitrile
1,08
Nylon 6/10 [Poly(hexamethylene sebacamide)]
1,08
Nylon 6/6 [Poly(hexamethylene adipamide)]
1,08
Styrene/allyl alcohol copolymer-6% hydroxyl
1,083
Poly(vinyl butyral)-11% hydroxyl content
1,083
Poly(vinyl butyral)
1,083
Poly[2,2-propane bis[4-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)]carbonate]
1,083
Poly(ethylene sebacate)
1,085
Poly(n-butyl acrylate)
1,087
Butyl methacrylate/isobutyl methacrylate copolymer-50/50 copolymer
1,09
Poly(methyl m-chlorophenylethylsiloxane)
1,09
Poly(alpha,alpha-dimethylpropiolactone)
1,097
Poly(ethylene glycol mono-methyl ether)
1,097
Polystyrene sulfonic acid
1,1
Polyethylene, chlorinated-25% chlorine
1,1
Polysulfone, anionic
1,1
Polymethacrylonitrile
1,1
Poly(cyclohexyl methacrylate)
1,1
Poly(methyl m-chlorophenylsiloxane)
1,1
Poly(vinyl butyral)-19% hydroxyl content
1,1
Poly(ethyl methacrylate)
1,11
Polymethylphenylsiloxane
1,11
Poly(methylphenylsiloxane)
1,11
Poly(acryloxypropylmethylsilane)
1,11
Poly(p-cyclohexylphenyl methacrylate)
1,115
Vinyl alcohol/vinyl butyral copolymer-80% vinyl butyral
1,12
Nylon 6(3)T [Poly(trimethyl hexamethylene terephthalamide)]
1,12
Poly(vinyl methyl ketone)
1,12
Nylon 6 [Poly(caprolactam)]
1,12
Poly(ethyl acrylate)
1,12
Poly(2,2,2′-trimethylhexamethylene terephthalamide)
1,12
Poly(1-phenylethyl methacrylate)
1,129
Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)
1,14
Ethyl cellulose
1,14
Poly(2,6-diphenyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)
1,14
Polycaprolactone
1,143
Poly(1,2-diphenylethyl methacrylate)
1,147
Poly(t-butylaminoethyl methacrylate)
1,15
Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)
1,15
Poly(styrene oxide)
1,15
Polyethylene, chlorinated-36% chlorine
1,16
Poly(diphenylmethyl methacrylate)
1,168
Poly(ethylene succinate)
1,175
Poly(benzyl methacrylate)
1,179
Styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer-75% styrene
1,18
Phenoxy resin
1,18
Poly(vinyl methyl sulfide)
1,18
Poly(methacrylic acid), sodium salt
1,18
Poly(ethylene adipate)
1,183
Poly(ethylene azelate)
1,183
Polyacrylonitrile
1,184
Poly(vinyl acetate)
1,19
Poly(1,4-cyclohexylidene dimethylene terephthalate)
1,196
Polydiphenoxyphosphazene
1,2
Poly(methyl methacrylate)
1,2
Poly(n-vinyl carbazole)
1,2
Polycarbonate
1,2
Bisphenol A polycarbonate
1,2
Poly[1,1-(1-phenylethane) bis(4-phenyl)carbonate]
1,2
Poly(ethylene glycol)
1,207
Poly(methylene-co-guanidine), hydrochloride
1,21
Poly(ethylene-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene)
1,21
Poly(phenyl methacrylate)
1,21
Poly(ethylene oxide)
1,21
Polyethylene, chlorinated-42% chlorine
1,22
Poly(methyl acrylate)
1,22
Polyimidazoline, quaternized
1,22
Polychloroprene
1,23
Cellulose propionate
1,23
Poly(vinyl formal)
1,23
Poly(methylene[polyphenyl isocyanate)]
1,24
Polysulfone
1,24
Poly[4,4′-isopropylidene diphenoxy di(4-phenylene)sulfone]
1,24
Poly(sec-butyl alpha-chloroacrylate)
1,24
Poly[methane bis(4-phenyl)carbonate]
1,24
Poly(n-butyl alpha-chloroacrylate)
1,24
Polyethylene, chlorinated-48% chlorine
1,25
Zein, purified
1,25
Polyoxymethylene
1,25
Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)
1,25
Poly(cyclohexyl a-chloroacrylate)
1,25
Poly(diallyl isophthalate)
1,256
Cellulose acetate butyrate
1,26
Poly(diallyl phthalate)
1,267
Poly(tetramethylene isophthalate)
1,268
Poly[1-(o-chlorophenyl)ethyl methacrylate]
1,269
Polysulfide rubber
1,27
Styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer-50% styrene
1,27
Poly(isopropyl a-chloroacrylate)
1,27
Polyethylene, chlorosulfonated
1,28
Poly(vinyl alcohol)
1,29
Poly(n-propyl a-chloroacrylate)
1,3
Poly(methyl y-trifluoropropylsiloxane)
1,3
Poly[2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5,5′-bibenzimidazole]
1,3
Polyacrylamide
1,302
Poly(methyl alpha-cyanoacrylate)
1,304
Polybutadiene terephthalate
1,31
Cellulose acetate
1,31
Cellulose triacetate
1,31
Poly(2-chloroethyl methacrylate)
1,32
Poly(m-trifluoromethylstyrene)
1,32
Vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer-81% vinyl chloride
1,33
Poly(ethylene-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate)
1,33
Poly(ethylene phthalate)
1,338
Poly(ethylene isophthalate)
1,34
Poly(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-methylethyl methacrylate)
1,34
Vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer, carboxylated
1,35
Poly[thio bis(4-phenyl)carbonate]
1,355
Polyepichlorohydrin
1,36
Vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer-90% vinyl chloride
1,36
Poly(phenylene sulfide)
1,36
Poly(B-propiolactone)
1,36
Vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer-88% vinyl chloride
1,37
Methyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride copolymer-50/50 copolymer
1,37
Poly(p-phenylene ether-sulphone)
1,37
Poly(3-chloropropylene oxide)
1,37
Poly(vinyl fluoride)
1,38
Poly(ethylene terephthalate)
1,385
Hydroxyethyl cellulose
1,39
Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose
1,39
Vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymer-91% vinyl chloride,
3% vinyl acetate
1,39
Poly(vinyl chloride), carboxylated
1,39
Methyl cellulose
1,39
Poly(ethyl a-chloroacrylate)
1,39
Polyimide
1,4
Poly(vinyl chloride)
1,4
Poly(acrylic acid)
1,41
Vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer-5% vinyl chloride
1,41
Poly[2,2-propane bis[4-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)]carbonate]
1,415
Polyacetal
1,42
Poly[N,N’-(p,p’-oxydiphenylene)pyromellitimide]
1,42
Poly(4-fluoro-2-trifluoromethylstyrene)
1,43
Poly(p-hydroxy benzoate)
1,44
Poly(p-oxybenzoate)
1,44
Melamine cellulose
1.45-1.52
Poly(vinyl chloroacetate)
1,45
Melamine formaldehyde
1,48
Poly(3,3,3-trifluoroethylene)
1,58
Alginic acid, sodium salt (algin)
1,59
Cellulose nitrate
1,6
Poly(glycolic acid)
1,6
Polyisoprene, chlorinated
1,63
Vinylidene chloride/acrylonitrile copolymer-20% acrylonitrile
1,65
Poly(vinylidene chloride)
1,66
Poly(vinylidene fluoride)
1,76
Poly(hexafluoropropylene oxide)
1,91
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
1,92
Poly[2,2-propane bis(4-(2,6-dibromophenyl)]carbonate]
1,953
Nafion 117, hydrogen ion form
1,98
Poly[2,2-hexafluoropropane bis[4-(2,6-dibromophenyl) carbonate]
1,987
Melamine
2
Phenolic resins
2
Poly(tetrafluoroethylene)
2
Poly(2,4,6-tribromostyrene)
2,1
Poly[tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoro(alkyl vinyl ether)]
2,15
Source: http://scientificpolymer.com/density-of-polymers-by-density/